• Ancient Mesopotamia 10/13/2020

    Artisan - a person skilled at making things by hand

    City-state - a political unit that includes a city and nearby farmlands

    Cuneiform - a type of writing made up of wedge-shaped markings

    Empire - a group of different lands and people governed by one ruler

    Famine - an extreme shortage of food

    Irrigation - the watering of crops

    Polytheism – a belief in many gods or goddesses

    Ritual - a religious ceremony

    Scribe - a person who specializes in writing and serves as a record keeper (*previous vocab word!)

    Silt - an especially fine and fertile soil

    Tribute - a tax paid or goods and services rendered in return for protection

    Ziggurat - an ancient Sumerian or Babylonian temple that rose in step-like levels

    Origins of civilizations 9/9/2020

    Primary Source – something written or created by a person who witnessed a historical event

    Secondary source – an account of a historical event written by someone who did not witness the event

    Artifact(s) - human-made object(s)

    Fossil – preserved remains of early life

    Anthropologist - a scientist who studies the cultural developments of humans

    Archeologist - a scientist who studies past human life by analyzing fossils and artifacts

    Hunter and gatherer - person who obtains food by hunting animals and gathering plants

    Nomad - a group of people who have no set home but move from place to place

    Migration - the act of moving from one place to settle in another

    Domesticate/domestication – to grow and tend wild plants and animals

    Fertile - able to produce a great deal of crops

    Surplus – amount of goods that is in excess of what is needed

    Oral tradition – the passing of stories or histories by word of mouth from one generation to the next

    Scribe - a person who specializes in writing and serves as record keeper

    Cultural diffusion - the spreading out of culture, culture traits, or a cultural pattern from a central point

    Agriculture revolution - a period in which humans began to grow crops instead of gathering plants

    Technology - the ways people apply knowledge and tools to meet their needs


    Geography/mapping skills 8/21/2020

    1. Civilization - a society with a highly developed culture, politics and technology
    2. Climate - the average condition of the atmosphere of an area over a long period of time, including temperature, precipitation, and seasonal changes
    3. Culture - a group's way of life, including types of food, shelter, clothing, language, behavior and ideas
    4. Economy - a system in which people produce, sell and buy items
    5. Elevation - the height of land above sea level
    6. Equator - an imaginary (latitude) line (circle) around the earth, that is the same distance from North and South poles and divides the Earth in half (northern and southern hemispheres), the center measures 0 degrees
    7. Hemisphere - equal halves of the globe
    8. Human Environment Interaction - the way people and the environment affect each other
    9. Latitude - imaginary lines around the Earth that run east and west, showing location relative to the equator
    10. Location - where a place is on Earth
    11. Longitude - imaginary lines that run north to south from the North Pole to the South Pole that shows locations relative to the prime meridian
    12. Movement - how do people, goods and ideas move from region to region
    13. Physical map - a map showing landforms and bodies of water
    14. Place - the physical and human characteristics of a place
    15. Political map - a map showing features people have created
    16. Prime Meridian - the line of 0 degrees longitude and passed through Greenwich, England that divides the earth into eastern and western hemispheres
    17. Region - a group of places with common traits
    18. Scale - the part of a map that indicates how big an area of Earth is shown
    19. Thematic map - a map showing a distribution or pattern
    20. Weather - the condition of the atmosphere at a particular time, including temperature, precipitation and humidity for a particular day or week